Genetic or germ plasm resources are plant materials, animals, microorganisms, which have the ability to degrade the nature from one generation to the next. In plants, genetic resources are present in seeds, tissues, other parts of the plant, as well as young and adult plants. In animals or livestock genetic resources are present in tissues, parts of other animals, cement, eggs, embryos, live animals, both young and adult. Many plant species in Indonesia have a high diversity of genetic resources and their spread over many regions. Each region in Indonesia has some unique genetic resources, which are often different from those in other areas. Examples are some typical rice varieties.
Protective rules on genetic resources are then poured in the Nagoya Protocol. The Protocol regulates access to genetic resources and fair and equitable benefit sharing arising from its use of biodiversity conventions. The Nagoya Protocol is expected to be a comprehensive and effective international arrangement for the protection of Indonesia’s biodiversity and ensures benefit sharing for Indonesia as a rich resource of genetic resources. Biodiversity is the foundation of human life, because everyone needs it to sustain life, as a source of food, feed, industrial raw materials, pharmaceuticals and medicines.
Bali itself has been protecting its genetic resources for hundreds of years, through customary rites, its use as medicine and cosmetics, as well as through village rules. Various types of plants and animals in offering are used as the core completeness of the implementation of traditional and religious ceremonies in Bali. That is, all types of biodiversity must be kept so that the ceremony performed to achieve perfection. Respect and expression of gratitude for the abundance of genetic resources is also done through some traditional practices that also aim to care for and utilize these resources.
Usada Taru Pramana also written in lontar is one of the “old” knowledge of Bali about the use of various types of plants for medicine, including cosmetics. Lontar usada not only contains the mantras and treatment rituals, but also peel the ins and outs of various types of diseases complete with various medicinal herbs that utilize the plants (herbs) that grow in the mainland of Bali. Traditional Balinese medicine herbs are believed to be much safer for consumption and no side effects than chemical drugs. Given the majority of medicinal herbs made from raw plants, then the step must be accompanied by efforts to preserve medicinal plants itself.
Meanwhile, the rules of protection of genetic resources can still be seen clearly in Tenganan Pegringsingan Traditional Village. The village whose existence has been recorded in lontar since the 11th century is still firmly uphold and run the rule of his village, in which regulate the protection and utilization of various types of plants. One of the chapters says that “Trees in the Tenganan Pegringsingan region should not be cut down indiscriminately, especially jackfruit, tehep, candlenut, pangi, cempaka, durian, and enau. Especially for enau, trees can be felled when it is finished bear fruit. ”
The uniqueness of the potential of each region needs to be understood and understood in its entirety in everyday life. Village ability to understand and interpret its potential is needed in the effort to face the “flood” of people, goods, and services. In this case, inter-village co-operation, community resource management network is needed to address the free market. In addition, synchronization between communities, government, academia, the private sector in maintaining the uniqueness of each region becomes very important, especially in relation to fair and balanced profit sharing arising from its use of biodiversity conventions.
Yayasan Wisnu, on February 28, 2013 held a discussion related to it. In collaboration with Yayasan KEHATI, Jakarta and the Ministry of Environment, the event was attended by several pakraman villages in Bali and individuals interested and interested in the sustainability of genetic resources. Activities are held in the open space of Wisnu, shaded by ketapang tree that has grown since more than ten years. The oxygen that was issued and given the Ketapang made the discussion run in a familial atmosphere and remained fresh until the bar show
The event was opened by Deputy III of the Department of Environmental Damage Control and Climate Change of the Ministry of Environment. It is generally said that in essence the Nagoya Protocol is aimed at protecting genetic resources, by regulating “wealth transactions” when “in demand” by other countries. Then, respectively as a resource is:
- Mr. Ketut Sumarta, General Secretary of Majelis Majelis Desa Pakraman – Biwe Village Diversity of Pakraman Village
- Putu Wiadnyana, Pakraman Village Tenganan Pegringsingan – Village Custom Rules in “Security” of Village Plants
- Mr. I Made Sujana, Banjar Dukuh Sibetan Village – Wine Salak, “Capital” Intervention Efforts on Duwe Village
- Mrs. Dayu Rusmarini, Castle of Peace – Utilization of Genetic Resources for Medicine and Cosmetics
- Ibu Diah’s mother, Udayana University – Utilization of Bamboo Resources and Benefit Sharing to the Community
Then it’s equipped by Dr. Suryadarma, Yogyakarta State University – Indigenous Peoples’ Rights over Biological Resources. Also Ms Miranda Risangayu from the Ministry of Environment who said that Indonesia is now as a country is not aware of the wealth of resources and traditions owned. The Nagoya protocol is present to make a more equitable profit sharing, not a commodity and economic object.
This discussion formulates several needs, namely:
- Identify ritual needs, especially the rare ones (need to inventory all types of plants in Bali as the basis for collecting data in each village)
- Incorporates the results of identification of genetic resources for MUDP program, make rules about the use of local fruit as the ingredient of offering
- PRA training for resource collection and mapping
- Develop Rukmini Tattwa and Usada Sawah